Customer Relationship Management :Literature review

By June 30, 2015

1 A brief history of Customer Relationship Management
Beginning in the early 1980’s, in the United States Customer Relationship Management was called Contact Management. Information was collected from customers and companies. In the early 1990’s, call centers were generated and the customer service information analysis function was performed through data warehouse, data mining, and others technologies. Now, Web-enabled Call Centers are used to enlarge the market and determine customer initiated value-added services [1].
2 The integrated structure of Customer Relationship Management
Kalakota and Robinson [9] considered that the appropriate CRM structure could be realized through three aspects: taking customers from other firms, enhancing customer from other firms, and maintaining the current customer base. Different management functions are needed to achieve the integrated CRM structure. By developing relationships between the business and customers, CRM could be separated into taking customers, serving customers, and customer analysis. Business could use customer profiles effectively to provide real-time, excellent customer service. This is a beginning in developing the next customer through analyzing the customer’s needs. To realize the four core relations at the center, CRM makes cycling the customer relation process through customer development and data feedback. It is the final target to make customer satisfied and creating profits in different functional collocation of customer relation. However, we can establish an integrated CRM structure involving three topics: Core Relations, Customer Relations, and Information Technology, by centralizing customer analysis [13].
3 The theory of relationship marketing
As the time trend evolving and consumer conscious raising, the traditional marketing theory will develop. Kotler [11] considered that the theory of marketing management is generated by five different operating principles (1) production concept; (2) product concept; (3) sales concept; (4) marketing concept, and (5) social market concept. He also considered that the different levels of customer relationship will separate relationship marketing into (1) basic marketing, (2) reactive marketing, (3) accountable marketing, (4) proactive marketing, and (5) partnership marketing. However, under marketing theory development, the traditional sales principles were not suited to the market of today. In business, the important task is how to use relationship marketing with integrated marketing effectively to strive for customer loyalty. Integrated marketing has progressively formed this concept. Kotler [11] considered integrated marketing as all of the divisions in the business that provide services that make satisfied customers. Executing this involves two levels: (1) sales strength, (2) the collaboration of advertisement and product marketing management. At the same time, all related marketing activities must collaborate with all other divisions. To promote collaboration between all divisions, a business had to execute the external marketing and internal marketing. The external marketing is business adopted marketing activities to the external customer. The internal marketing is how to select, train, and motivate employees to provide the best service to the customer.
4 Value compass
The value compass determines the value of four customer relationship perspectives was brought out by Wayland [5]. It is the strategy the best value of collaboration between business and business through correct connection. We will introduce the four perspectives that the value compass decides the value of customer relationship as follows.
4.1 Customer portfolio management
Customer portfolio management means that how to choice the valuable customer relationship and management principles. It can be separated into three items: (1) Market level. Business makes the portfolio target as all customers in the wide market. The best purchasing-power customer is the best valuable customer. (2) Group level. The object is certainty distinguish or different type group customers. They could give the supplier rich feedback. Managers provide service which satisfies customers’ special needs. (3) Individual level. Business has to know deeper customer knowledge and adopt individual management when the needs are very different in relation value, preference, and individual needs.
4.2 The setup of value position
The value position is meaning that the value exchange degree between buyer and seller. Business will provide much service in the value chain or total experience for the customer to increase the value of the customer relationship. This can be separated into three items: (1) Core product. It can be defined clearly as the special part of customer value chain. Supplier can improve core product or service to reduce the cost of customer. (2) Extended service. Increase more related buyers’ value chain or total experience. This means that sellers could provide much service for customer to achieve the customers’ needs. (3) Total resolution alternative. It is wider value position that sellers will intervene in buyers who satisfied or achieved targets to adopt activities including the interrelation and communication channel between them.
4.3 Value-added role
Value-added role is how business seeks out obtaining the best profit feedback position between customer and suppliers in related value chain. It can be separated into three roles: (1) Product manager. This is a series of interrelated activities and business behaviors that provide a product to buyers; (2) Process manager. It is a multi-perspective connected model between a customer and supplier. The process manager customer relationship involves all position in value position, but it refers to the wider value exchange; (3) Network manager. It involves multi-perspective between buyers and sellers and the connection of related groups.
4.4 Reward and risk sharing
The interactive between customers and suppliers is basic on value creating and value sharing. There are three different represented positions as follows: (1) Market-base sharing. It is the basic model of the reward and risk sharing. This was decided by the market and possessed neutral characteristic. (2) Expression-base sharing. In the future, it will hold and operate the price of some products that are risk-taking and uncertainty. They usually determine the risk by negotiation to develop the extend relationship. Quality assurance and after-selling service is common model of risk-taking. (3) Result-base sharing. It is partnering all most people mean joint risk-taking. However, the sharing reward is based on the degree of plan success.
5 Customer service management
There are three customer service parts including construct service system, after-sales service, and satisfaction investigation. The services provided involve before-sales, sale, and after-sale. As business can provide perfect selling process in spot, they can keep the customer to increase opportunity of profit. However, all kinds of follow-up service, it can not only strive customer loyalty and compensate for customer dissatisfied but also stop negative product information from spreading. At the same time, as better understanding of what satisfies the customer, the business learns to provide improved products and services.
5.1 Service system construction
Rohit [12] considers that when a business builds a service system, a service design and service delivery process are involved. (1) Service design. Considers the product characteristics suitable for different services. (2) Service delivery. Considers the environment in which the service is provided, and a whole set of alternatives to ensure that service quality is achieved between the salesman and customer. Until now, most business have established a specific customer service department to handle customer related services. The administration in charge of design and controlling customer service, planning and executing all kinds of sales services occur on the spot. It, the call center or service center, will help the business deliver customer service.
5.2 After-sales service management
After-sales service is all kinds of services asked for after the sale is completed. This is separated into extended service satisfaction, confirmation management and after-sales service. (1) Satisfaction confirmation management. Business takes the initiative for completed consumer to confirm the product use condition and satisfaction. In the execution of after-sales services, how much resources the business inputs is divided into four items: (a) product questionnaire feedback, (b) acknowledgement letter delivery, (c) telephone interviewing, (d) sales interview. (2) The management of customers complain. An example of the general customer call process, business should obey the following principles to increase customer satisfaction: (a) Calm down the customer’s feelings, (b) List the emergency, (c) Express concern, (d) Afford redress, (e) Conduct a follow-up investigation.
5.3 Customer satisfaction investigation
A complete customer satisfaction investigation should have overall planning to raise the validity and reliability in investigation result. The identification and supporting of senior manager will affect the result. Only senior manager support should set the investigated target to achieve customer satisfaction through developing research, analysis, and result application. We can separate the complete customer satisfaction investigation process into eight items as follows: (1) senior manager support; (2) investigation target identification; (3) investigation plan; (4) questionnaire list; (5) questionnaire execution; (6) questionnaire result analysis; (7) information sharing; (8) investigation review.
6 Information technology construction
Information technology infrastructure and construction could provide the needed competitive information technology resources. They are also the key factors of forming basic strength difference. Davidoow et al. [7] considered that when information technology infrastructure and construction could allow new business strategies to appear and provide integrated connectivity mechanisms. [4]. Applegate et al. [2] considered a broad definition of information technology that included information technology infrastructure and information technology related operation and opportunity. However, Ken [10] considered that information technology construction could provide an overview of business owned information technology, possible technology, and implies business operation. This connects organization structure and business strategy. Information technology infrastructure is an information technology capability to help business information integration and sharing. Weill [14] considered that the information technology capacity of technology infrastructure possesses not only information technology, but also technology perspectives that provide basic operation levels, communication, software equipment, network systems and management perspectives. Furthermore, Broadbent et al. [4] consider that information technology capacity should also involve the scope of reach and range in business; the scope of reach is connection level of information technology capacity and the range of reach is provided service of information technology capacity.